City planning is often economically driven and as a result, most poor people live far from the city center. During Apartheid, black people were forced to live in underdeveloped urban areas, called townships. Nowadays low-income people living in townships are 10 to 30 kilometers away from the city and economic center. Someone living in the townships supporting a family with a daily wage of R140 could spend R30 per day on transportation to get to work.

Additionally, computers and Internet can be difficult to access in the townships due to lack of equipment, infrastructure, low computer proficiency levels, and cost. For people in low-income communities, lack of transportation and communication are both significant barriers to finding employment or entrepreneurial opportunities.  


Inclusive Consulting students provided consulting recommendations to Molly’s driving and computer school, so that she can continue to offer these services to her community.


Fast Facts

“In Africa the BOP market, $429 billion, is by far the region’s dominant consumer market representing 71% of aggregate purchasing power.” Source: next 4 Billion

Only five products represent nearly 60% of a spaza shop’s income: sugar, maize meal, rice and meat

An estimated 30 million people in South Africa are at risk of micronutrient deficiency, particularly in vitamin A, zinc and iron

Discover more about specific sectors at the base of the pyramid in South Africa

Housing & EnergyHousing_%26_Energy.html
Transportation & Communications
Textiles & CraftsTextile_%26_Crafts.html
Entertainment & Personal CareEntertainment_%26_Personal_Care.html